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Economic Activity

Economic Activity
   As per the Census 2001, the Indian workforce is over 400 million strong, which constitutes 39.1 % of the total population of the country. The workers comprise 312 million main workers and 88 million marginal workers (i.e., those who did not work for at least 183 days in the preceding 12 months to the census taking) Sex differential among the number of male and female worker in the total workforce is significant. Of the total 402 million workers, 275 million are males and 127 million females. This would mean that 51.7 percent of the total males and 25.6 percent of the total females are workers. The number of female workers is about less than half the number of male workers. In terms of proportion, 68.4 percent of the workers are males and 31.6 percent females.o the census taking).

   Main workers constitute 77.8 percent of the total workers. The remaining are marginal workers. Among the main workers, female workers, are only 23.3 % and 76.7% are male workers. Majority of female workers (87.3 percent) are from rural areas. This is also twice that of male workers, which may be due to their being employed predominantly in activities like cultivation and agricultural labour. In the urban areas, majority of female workers are engaged in Households industry and other work.

    Interestingly, among marginal workers females outnumber the males. In three of the four categories, viz. cultivators, agricultural labourers and household industries, female marginal workers outnumber male workers.

Number of Workers ('000s)
Category
Persons
Males
Females
Total population
1,028,610
532,157
496,453
Total workers
402,235
275,015
127,220
Main workers
313,005
240,148
72,857
Marginal workers
89,230
34,867
54,363
Non-workers
626,376
257,142
369,234
Cultivation
127,313
85,417
41,896
Agricultureal labourers
106,957
57,329
49,446
Household industry workers
16,957
8,744
8,213
Other workers
151,190
123,525
27,665
Source : PCA India, Census of India 2001

   The workers have been classified by the type of economic activity into broad the type of economic activity into nine broad categories as per National Industrial Classification, 1998. Distribution of main workers by industrial category shows that agriculture sector still employs largest number of workers. The dependence on agriculture is brought out by the fact that of the 313 million main workers in the country, 166 million (56.6%) has been engaged in ‘Agricultural and allied activities’. This is followed by ‘Manufacturing Industries’, which employed about 42 million (13.4%). There are 31.1 million workers in the services sector forming 10 % of the total main workers with similar number engaged in ‘Wholesale retail trade and repair work, Hotel and restaurant.

 

 

TABLE 20 : DISTRIBUTION FO MAIN WORKED BY DIFFERENT INDUSTRIAL CATEGORIES, INDIA 2001

Industrial category Main Workers ('000s) Percentage (%)
Total main workers *
312,972
100.0
Agricultural & allied activities
176,979
56.6
Mining & quarrying
1,908
0.6
Manufacturing
41,848
13.4
Electricity, gas and water supply
1,546
0.5
Construction
11,583
3.7
Wholesale, retail trade & repair work, Hotel and resturants
29,333
9.4
Transport, storage & communications
12,535
4.0
Financial intermediation, Real estate, business activities
6,109
2.0
Other services
31,131
10.0
Source : Industrial classification data based on sample.

Note:* Total main workers is based on actual values of cultivators and Agricultural labourers from full count (included in agricultural & allied activities) and estimated values for industrial categories.

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